The U.S. program to develop biosimilar agents – somewhat akin to generic drugs for complex, biologic molecules that have come off patent protection – is gathering momentum, with the first U.S. biosimilar, Zarxio , approved by the Food and Drug Administration in March 2015 and with the second, a biosimilar to infliximab, recommended by an FDA advisory committee on Feb. 9 of this year.
What’s striking about the burgeoning biosimilar development process, created by the Affordable Care Act, is how it has morphed the FDA from its traditional role as an objective arbiter of a drug’s safety and efficacy into an active partner in shepherding biosimilars onto the market.
As explained on Feb. 4 in testimony before a Congressional committee by Dr. Janet Woodcock , director of the FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, the Biologic Price Competition and Innovation Act that was part of the Affordable Care Act launched a new U.S. drug-development pathway expressly for biosimilars. To implement that law, the FDA created an entirely new infrastructure within the agency – the Biosimilar Product Development Program – to help guide prospective manufacturers (called sponsors) of biosimilars through the regulatory and research hurdles to get a new biosimilar approved and into the hands of U.S. patients.
According to Dr. Woodcock, this program involves many steps where FDA staffers provide “review” and “advice” to sponsors on the studies they need to conduct and the analysis they need to perform to get their new products to market. The sponsor joins this program by paying an upfront fee that the FDA uses to keep the program running. Once a sponsor of a prospective biosimilar is in the program, the FDA’s staff helps guide the biosimilar development to a smooth conclusion.
To some extent, the FDA staff fills a similar role for conventional drug-development enterprises, conferring with manufacturers from the outset on matters such as the types and design of studies needed to insure success. What’s different about the biosimilar program is that conventional-drug development went on well before the FDA (or its predecessor ) entered the scene, and the U.S. government created the FDA to police and regulate the drug production industry and protect the public against unscrupulous manufacturers of ineffective or dangerous drugs.
In contrast, the FDA itself created this new biosimilar development structure, and Dr. Woodcock noted that the in-depth review and advice meetings that the FDA offers to prospective biosimilar sponsors “has no counterpart in the Prescription Drug User Fee Act program and is unique” to the biosimilar program.
The consequence of having the FDA create the biosimilar development program from the ground up and structure it to provide such intimate input from the agency to sponsors at every step of the way seems to give the agency a notable and somewhat unnerving investment in the program’s success.
Dr. Woodcock called the approval of Zarxio an “exciting accomplishment,” and in her testimony before Congress she trumpeted the fact that as of January 2016 the biosimilar program was working on 59 proposed products that would mimic 18 different reference-product biologics. She also said that the FDA is “excited about the growing demand” for biosimilar-oriented meetings and marketing applications.
Don’t get me wrong: I think that the biosimilar concept is great, and has the potential to make what have become life-changing treatments more affordable and more available. And making the FDA such an active participant in getting biosimilar drugs created and approved is undoubtedly the most efficient way to accomplish this.
But in the process, the biosimilar program has changed the FDA from its more disengaged role as objective pharmaceutical judge into an active and seemingly not completely neutral codeveloper, risking at least the appearance of lost impartiality. Given that the FDA now wears two very different hats, we need to trust that the integrity and dedication of its staff will keep them from confusing their roles as proponent and gatekeeper.
On Twitter @mitchelzoler