FROM AN ACIP MEETING
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices approved a series of minor changes to the current guidance for meningococcal, Tdap, DTaP, and human papillomavirus vaccination schedules.
Regarding meningococcal vaccinations, the committee voted to change the recommendations to state that individuals who are at an increased risk of contracting the disease should receive a three-dose regimen of Trumenba at 0 months, 1-2 months, and 6 months. The same regimen also should apply during any outbreaks of serogroup B meningococcal virus. In addition, a two-dose regimen at 0 and 6 months should be given to adolescents who are not considered high risk, and if the second dose is given fewer than 6 months following the first, then a third dose must be given within 6 months of the initial dose.
“This new recommendation enables flexible vaccination dosing intervals depending on one’s risk of exposure to meningococcal group B disease, also known as MenB, which makes it easier for health care providers to help protect adolescents and young adults from this uncommon but life-threatening disease,” the CDC announced in a statement.
For Tdap and DTaP vaccines, changes to the language of the recommendations were approved unanimously by the committee. These changes will contain the routine recommendations for DTaP, Tdap, and TB, which previously were published as separate statements, along with Tdap recommendations made after the 2005 recommendations and published in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report policy notes.
“This statement also contains updates, such as DTaP vaccines that became available after the 1997 DTaP statement, and updates to the label indications on various DTaP and Tdap products,” Jennifer Liang, DVM, of the CDC’s National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, explained at the ACIP meeting. “Also included in the statement are the following updates: mention of the discontinuation of monovalent tetanus toxoid vaccine, the contraindications and precautions for DTaP are now consistent with the [American Academy of Pediatrics’] Red Book , and for persons aged 7-10 years who received a dose of Tdap as part of the catchup series, an adolescent Tdap dose may be given at age 11-12 years.”
Dr. Liang added that these updated changes would bring the guidance in line with the recommendations for children who are administered Tdap inadvertently.
With one recusal, changes to the HPV vaccination guidance also were unanimously approved. No changes were proposed to the routine and catch-up age groups for HPV vaccination, and for contraindications and precautions. Major additions were made, however, to the sections on dosing schedules, and people with prior vaccination. Clarifying language was added for the sections on interrupted schedules, special populations, and medical conditions.
For individuals initiating vaccination before the 15th birthday, the recommended immunization schedule is two doses of HPV vaccine. The second dose should be administered 6-12 months after the first dose (0 months, 6-12 months schedule). For people initiating vaccination on or after the 15th birthday, the recommendations remain the same as before: three doses of HPV vaccine, with the second dose administered 1-2 months after the first dose, and the third dose administered within 6 months of the first dose.
Those with prior vaccinations who initiated with 9-valent HPV, 4-valent HPV, or 2-valent HPV before their 15th birthday and received either two or three doses at the recommended dosing schedule should be considered adequately vaccinated. Those who initiated any of those three HPV vaccinations on or after their 15th birthday and received three doses at the currently recommended dosing schedule should be considered adequately vaccinated, too.
With regard to the minimum intervals, the proposed change was to add a footnote defining minimum intervals: in a two-dose series of HPV vaccines, the minimum interval is 5 months between the first and second dose, and in a three-dose series, 5 months between the first and third dose. All other language remains as is. Special population language also was changed to “gay, bisexual, and other” men rather than simply men who have sex with men, to broaden the scope of the language. Language also will be amended to include transgender patients.
Finally, for those with other medical conditions, ACIP still recommends that all immunocompromised males and females aged 9-26 years get a three-dose HPV vaccination at 0, 1-2, and 6 months, but now the language change will read that “Persons who should receive three doses are those with primary or secondary immunocompromising conditions that might reduce cell-mediated or humoral immunity, such as B lymphocyte antibody deficiencies, T lymphocyte complete or partial defects, HIV infection, malignant neoplasm, transplantation, autoimmune disease, or immunosuppressive therapy, since response to vaccination may be attenuated.”
In addition, there will be a footnote stating that these recommendations for a three-dose schedule do not apply to children under the age of 15 years with asplenia, asthma, chronic granulomatous disease, chronic heart/liver/lung/renal disease, central nervous system anatomic barrier defects, complement deficiency, diabetes, or sickle cell disease.”
The recommendations agreed upon will be submitted for approval to CDC Director Tom Frieden, MD. If approved, the recommendations will be published by Jan. 1, 2017, at which point, they will go into effect.