AT SGS 2017
SAN ANTONIO (FRONTLINE MEDICAL NEWS) – In new guidelines, the Society of Gynecologic Surgeons suggested uterine preservation, when not contraindicated, for most pelvic organ prolapse repairs to decrease mesh erosion, operating room time, and blood loss.
The advice is based on a review of 94 original studies, including 12 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 41 nonrandomized comparative studies, winnowed down to the strongest work from an original review of 7,324 abstracts through January 2017.
Short-term prolapse outcomes – 12-30 months in most of the studies – “are usually not clinically significant due to uterine preservation,” with the one exception of vaginal hysterectomy with native tissue reconstruction, which the group recommended over laparoscopic sacrohysteropexy, Kate Meriwether, MD, a gynecologic surgeon at the University of Louisville, Ky., said at the annual scientific meeting of the Society of Gynecologic Surgeons.
Hysterectomy for prolapse surgery is common: More than 74,000 hysterectomies are done in the United States each year with prolapse as the main indication. Even so, it’s not always necessary to take out the uterus, and perhaps more than a third of women would prefer to keep theirs, Dr. Meriwether said, speaking on behalf of the SGS Systematic Review Group.
The new guidelines are aimed at helping surgeons and patients make those decisions, she added. There was no mention of when they would be published.
The group made a grade A recommendation for vaginal hysterectomy with native tissue reconstruction over laparoscopic sacrohysteropexy, meaning it was based on high-quality evidence. The rest of the advice came in the form of suggestions, based on moderate grade B evidence, often nonrandomized comparative studies and case reviews.
The SGS suggested uterine preservation during laparoscopic native tissue prolapse repair to reduce operating room (OR) time and blood loss, and preserve vaginal length, based on four nonrandomized comparison studies using various approaches, with a total of 446 women and up to 3 years’ follow-up. There might be a higher risk of apical recurrence without hysterectomy, but without worsening of prolapse symptoms.
The SGS also suggested uterine preservation in transvaginal mesh reconstruction for prolapse, based on four RCTs and nine comparison studies with 1,381 women and up to 30 months’ follow-up. The studies found a decreased risk of mesh erosion, reoperating for mesh erosion, blood loss, and postop bleeding, and improved posterior and apical Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification scores when women keep their uterus.
However, “the patient should be counseled that there may be increased de novo stress incontinence, overactive bladder,” postop constipation, and shorter vaginal length, Dr. Meriwether said.
Also, “we suggest preservation of the uterus in transvaginal apical native tissue repair of prolapse, as it does not worsen any outcomes and slightly reduces OR time and estimated blood loss,” based on 13 studies, including four RCTs, and a total of 1,449 women followed for up to 26 months, she said.
The SGS also came out in favor of the Manchester procedure, when available, over vaginal hysterectomy with native tissue suspension, based on one RCT and five nonrandomized studies involving 1,126 women and up to 61 months’ follow-up. The Manchester procedure pushed back the time to prolapse reoperation 9 months in one study, and also decreased transfusions, OR time, and blood loss. It also better preserved perineal length.
The group suggested uterine preservation when considering mesh sacrocolpopexy versus mesh sacrohysteropexy, to reduce mesh erosion, OR time, blood loss, hospital stay, and surgery costs, although there might be a slight worsening of Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory and Pelvic Floor Impact scores. The advice was based on nine nonrandomized comparison studies involving 745 women followed for up to 39 months. There was no difference in prolapse resolution between the two techniques.
The one grade A recommendation, for vaginal hysterectomy with native tissue reconstruction over laparoscopic sacrohysteropexy, was based on two RCTs with 182 women followed for up to 12 months.
Hysterectomy in those studies significantly reduced the risk of repeat surgery for prolapse and urinary symptoms, shortened OR time, and improved quality of life scores. However, the benefits came at the cost of slightly shorter vaginal length, worse Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification point C scores, greater blood loss, and up to a day longer spent in the hospital.
The SGS meeting was jointly sponsored by the American College of Surgeons. Dr. Meriwether reported having no relevant financial disclosures.