AT SGS 2016
INDIAN WELLS, CALIF. (FRONTLINE MEDICAL NEWS) – Implementation of a gynecologic perioperative infection prevention bundle for patients undergoing hysterectomy in a large academic hospital led to a 53% decrease in surgical site infections (SSIs) and a 50% drop in deep and organ space infections, a retrospective study found.
“There are approximately 600,000 hysterectomies performed each year in the United States, and the infection rate is widely reported as 1%-4%,” Dr. Sarah E. Andiman said at the annual scientific meeting of the Society of Gynecologic Surgeons. “SSIs lead to increased morbidity, negative patient experiences, prolonged hospital stays, additional procedures, and increased costs. The exact costs of SSIs related to hysterectomy are not known. However, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services has required public reporting of SSIs after hysterectomy since 2013.”
An interdisciplinary team at Yale–New Haven Hospital designed a perioperative gynecology-specific bundle aimed at reducing the SSI rate in hysterectomies. Dr. Andiman of the department of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive sciences at Yale University, New Haven, Conn., and her associates examined the efficacy of the infection prevention bundle. The primary outcome was SSI rate change, while the secondary outcome was hospital cost of admission for the initial care episode.
The bundle consists of a preoperative phase that includes chlorhexidine wipes, patient-controlled warming, and a standard antibiotic regimen consisting of 2 g of cefazolin within 1 hour of incision and 500 mg of metronidazole administered when there is a potential for bowel involvement.
The intraoperative phase of the bundle includes a standardized method of vaginal preparation with chlorhexidine and an abdominal prep with ChloraPrep. “Staff and trainees underwent training with an educational video that is available over our intranet,” Dr. Andiman said. “Also included was antibiotic redosing at 3 hours and intraoperative maintenance of temperature above 36° C.” The postoperative phase includes maintenance of a surgical dressing for 24-48 hours.
The researchers collected data prospectively according to institutional guidelines for tracking SSIs using definitions from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. All cases of SSIs were reviewed by a committee. In instances where the protocol was not followed, direct feedback was given to appropriate team members within 2 weeks.
The preintervention period was defined as the beginning of data collection through full bundle implementation, which was April 2013 through November 2014. The postbundle implementation period was December 2014 through June 2015. The analysis was limited to total abdominal, total laparoscopic, robotic-assisted total laparoscopic, and laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomies. Transvaginal and obstetric hysterectomies were excluded from the study, leaving a total of 1,763 procedures for inclusion.
Between the prebundle and postbundle period, the researchers observed a 53% decrease in SSIs and a 50% decrease in deep and organ space infections (P = .04). The difference was primarily driven by the decrease in the infection rate for total abdominal hysterectomies, Dr. Andiman said at the meeting, which was jointly sponsored by the American College of Surgeons.
The researchers also found that the cost of hospital admissions decreased 17.6% between the prebundle and postbundle period, from $7,452 per case to $6,142 per case (P = .002).
Dr. Andiman acknowledged certain limitations of the analysis, including the staggered implementation of the bundle components. “However, in the next stage of our study, we will be looking at comprehensive compliance data to examine this further,” she said. “Finally, we currently only have cost data for the cost of the hospital admission for the index surgery. We are also analyzing cost data for patients who were readmitted up to 30 days postoperatively to assess how this factors into overall costs.”
In an interview, Dr. Linda Fan , a gynecologic surgeon at Yale and the senior study author, said that a perioperative care bundle “by itself is not enough” to decrease SSI rates following hysterectomy.
“Education of staff is really important in terms of the uptake of these sorts of interventions,” she said. “As we move forward and everyone is looking at value, we have to teach people how to implement the different elements of the bundle.”
The researchers reported having no relevant financial disclosures.