Mobile health interventions targeting mothers of healthy newborns significantly improved safe sleep practices, compared with controls, in a randomized trial of 1,600 mothers published online July 25 in JAMA.
Despite the success of the Back to Sleep campaign in reducing rates of sudden infant death syndrome, approximately 3,500 infant deaths due to SIDS, accidental suffocation, or strangulation in bed occurred in 2014, wrote Rachel Y. Moon, MD, of the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, and her colleagues ( JAMA. 2017;318:351-9 ).
In the Social Media and Risk-Reduction Training (SMART) study to assess the effectiveness of mobile intervention on safe sleep practices, the researchers randomized 1,600 mothers affiliated with 16 hospitals nationwide to four groups: breastfeeding nursing quality intervention (NQI) and breastfeeding mobile health intervention (mHealth); safe sleep NQI, and breastfeeding mHealth; breastfeeding NQI and safe sleep mHealth; or safe sleep NQI and safe sleep mHealth. The mHealth intervention consisted of daily messages and videos for the first 11 days and then every 3-4 days for 60 days; the content was about safe sleep for infants (intervention) or about breastfeeding (control).
A total of 1,263 mothers completed the study, and mothers who received the mobile messages about safe sleep were significantly more likely than those who received the control messages to engage in safe sleep practices, including placing babies on their backs (89% vs. 80%), sharing a room without cosleeping (83% vs. 70%), avoiding the use of soft bedding (79% vs. 68%), and use of pacifiers (69% vs. 60%). The initial nursing quality intervention alone had no significant impact on any of the safe sleep practices, the researchers noted.
The results were limited by several factors, including the 21% lost to follow up and lack of data on adverse events and clinical outcomes, the researchers said. However, the results suggest that mobile messages could be cost effective and easily implemented by hospitals.
“Furthermore, because the rates of opening and viewing messages in this study were consistently higher than 50%, and almost all adults now have cell phones or email access, it is likely that this type of intervention would be feasible and well received by parents,” Dr. Moon and her associates added. “Whether widespread implementation is feasible or if it reduces sudden and unexpected infant death rates remains to be studied.”
“The messages and videos were timed to address challenges and questions that arise at specific time points; therefore, providing this additional information to parents at critical times may have been important in assuaging concerns about adherence to recommended practices. Furthermore, receiving frequent videos and email or text messages may have served as a virtual support system for mothers, reinforcing safe parental practices,” Dr. Moon and her associates noted.
The researchers had no financial conflicts to disclose. The study was supported in part by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and by the CJ Foundation for SIDS.