AT ACOG 2017
SAN DIEGO (FRONTLINE MEDICAL NEWS) – Use of sequential compression devices reduced by half cases of epidural-associated hypotension in laboring women in a small real-world, randomized controlled trial.
The results showed that patients who received sequential compression devices (SCD) and kept them on for at least an hour after epidural analgesia placement had half the hypotension of patients who had no lower limb compression (33.3% vs. 66.7%; P .022).
“Lower limb compression using SCDs significantly decreased the incidence of maternal hypotension in laboring patients receiving epidural anesthesia,” said Margaret Steinmetz, MD, a third-year resident at the State University of New York at Buffalo.
The study, which was presented at the annual clinical and scientific meeting of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, was a multisite, randomized controlled trial that used a randomized block design to assign women to three groups. The control group received no intervention; the remainder of patients received either thromboembolic deterrent (TED) stockings or sequential compression devices (SCDs) set to intermittent compression and applied before receiving epidural anesthesia.
The facilities’ usual protocols were followed both for epidural placement and for patient management, except for the lower limb compression and the study’s timed blood pressure checks.
Pregnant women who were at term and had requested epidural anesthesia were included if they had a singleton pregnancy; no history of hypertension, cardiovascular disease; and no contraindication to lower limb compression.
Hypotension – defined as at least one decrease in either systolic or diastolic blood pressure of more than 20% from baseline – was tracked by obtaining sequential blood pressure readings. A baseline was established with an average of three readings obtained before epidural placement. Following the epidural bolus, blood pressures were measured at minutes 1, 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60.
The investigators used an intention-to-treat analysis, meaning that they included patients allocated to each group whether or not they actually received lower limb compression. Patients with missing data were excluded.
A total of 82 patients were randomized:
While the SCDs cut the incidence of hypotension in half, compared with no compression, women in the TEDs group saw an intermediate result, with a 52.4% incidence of hypotension.
Dr. Steinmetz noted that knee-high TEDs were used. The choice was made in part because the labor and delivery nursing staff were not enthusiastic about the prospect of placing thigh-high TEDs on a woman in labor, she added.
Patient age, mean body mass index, and gestational age did not differ significantly between the study arms. Logistic regression analysis performed to control for clinical site, method of delivery, gestational age, and maternal age and body mass index did not affect the analysis, Dr. Steinmetz added.
Older data showed that about 30% of women getting epidurals in labor experience hypotension, though Dr. Steinmetz said that she believes that the 66.7% seen in this study is probably closer to an accurate estimate.
SUNY Buffalo is looking at changing the labor and delivery protocol to include lower limb compression with epidurals, Dr. Steinmetz said, adding “When I’m on labor and delivery, I definitely encourage the placement of SCDs.”
Some facilities also use lower limb compression to reduce hypotension when patients receive regional anesthesia for cesarean deliveries. Dr. Steinmetz said that there are studies that support that practice, but the literature is not conclusive. Still, it makes sense in this setting too, she said. “C-section patients sit up, they get their spinal, then we lay them down and put in a Foley, and they’re vomiting as we put in the Foley because they’re hypotensive from that spinal. … For me, myself, when I go into practice in 2 months, yes; I will be wanting to do this.”
Dr. Steinmetz reported no relevant disclosures.
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