EXPERT ANALYSIS FROM THE WINTER RHEUMATOLOGY SYMPOSIUM
SNOWMASS, COLO. (FRONTLINE MEDICAL NEWS) – Progress in the understanding and treatment of immunoglobulin G4–related disease is occurring “at lightning speed,” John H. Stone, MD, said at the Winter Rheumatology Symposium sponsored by the American College of Rheumatology.
Eight or nine years ago no one had heard of immunoglobulin G4–related disease (IgG4-RD). Today, because of the broad swathe the disease cuts, it’s a hot research topic in every subspecialty of medicine as well as surgery, pathology, and radiology.
“We now have a fairly coherent understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease. I actually think there are not too many rheumatologic conditions that we understand as well as we understand IgG4-related disease,” said Dr. Stone, professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and director of clinical rheumatology at Massachusetts General Hospital, both in Boston.
This new understanding of IgG4-RD, he added, is opening the door to novel treatments.
“This is not a new disease. It was there when we were all in medical school, and for hundreds of years before that. But it’s really only in the last decade that we have come to understand that the disease can affect literally every organ system in the body with syndromes that we once thought were isolated organ-specific syndromes but we now recognize are part of a multiorgan disease currently called IgG4-related disease,” the rheumatologist said.
IgG4-RD is an immune-mediated fibroinflammatory condition characterized histopathologically by three hallmark features in involved tissue: obliterative phlebitis, storiform fibrosis, and a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate.
Clinically, IgG4-RD often presents as a mass lesion that can affect any organ.
“I have many patients who’ve undergone modified Whipple procedures because they were thought to have adenocarcinoma of the pancreas,” according to Dr. Stone.
Other common presentations include Riedel’s thyroiditis, autoimmune pancreatitis, sclerosing cholangitis, sialadenitis, dacryoadenitis, periaortitis, an eosinophilic rash, and pseudotumor of the lung, lymph nodes, or orbits.
“Retroperitoneal fibrosis is a common and underappreciated manifestation. It may be the most common subsyndrome associated with IgG4-related disease,” he observed.
Another common presentation involves atopic disease – asthma, allergic rhinitis, eczema, eosinophilia, nasal polyps – developing out of the blue in middle age or later life. This observation led some other investigators to posit that IgG4-RD is a T-helper type 2–driven disease, an assertion debunked by Dr. Stone and coworkers ( Allergy. 2014 Feb;69:269-72 ).
Dr. Stone and his coinvestigators have published the largest series of patients with biopsy-proven IgG4-RD reported to date ( Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015 Sep; 67:2466-75 ). The average age at disease onset was 50 years. Of note, multiorgan involvement was the norm: 24% of patients had two organs involved, and 38% had three or more.
Analysis of this large patient series has led Dr. Stone to a surprising conclusion about the nature of IgG4-RD: “We have greatly overemphasized the importance of IgG4 in this condition,” he asserted.
Indeed, a mere 51% of the patients with clinically active untreated IgG4-RD in his series had an elevated serum IgG level. Dr. Stone characterized IgG4 as “kind of a wimpy antibody” incapable of driving the disease process because it is a noninflammatory immunoglobulin. This has led to speculation that IgG4 functions as what he termed an “antigen sink,” attempting to bind antigen at sites of inflammation.
But while an elevated serum IgG4 is of limited utility for diagnostic purposes, Dr. Stone and coworkers have demonstrated that it is of value as a predictor of relapse. Among patients with a treatment-induced remission, those in the top quartile in terms of baseline pretreatment serum IgG4 were 6.2-fold more likely to relapse ( Rheumatology [Oxford]. 2016 Jun;55:1000-8 ).
“This is a very useful marker for patients who are going to need chronic ongoing therapy. The notion of putting such patients on steroids for months and years is not appealing,” he said.
Levels of circulating plasmablasts as measured by peripheral blood flow cytometry, especially IgG4-positive plasmablasts, have proven much more helpful than serum IgG4 levels as a diagnostic tool, a reliable biomarker of disease activity, and a therapeutic target. Levels of these short-lived CD19+CD38+CD27+ plasmablasts are enormously elevated independent of serum IgG4 in patients with active IgG4-RD.
“One of the questions I’m most often asked is whether IgG4-related disease is a premalignant condition. My answer is no. The plasmablast expansion is oligoclonal, not polyclonal,” Dr. Stone continued.
He described IgG4-RD as “a continuous dance between T cells and B cells.” The latest thinking regarding pathogenesis is that type 2 T follicular helper cells activate B cells, which become memory B cells or plasmablasts. These activated B cells and plasmablasts present antigen to CD4+ cytotoxic T cells at sites of disease. Dr. Stone and his coinvestigators recently identified these CD4+ cytotoxic T cells as a novel population of clonally expanded T cells with SLAMF7 as a surface marker. The cells secrete interferon-gamma, interleukin-1, and transforming growth factor-beta, all of which are capable of driving the intense fibrosis characteristic of IgG4-RD. In addition, these CD4+ cytotoxic T cells secrete granzyme B and perforin, previously thought to be released mainly by natural killer T cells.
Joint American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism classification criteria for the disease are expected to be finalized this winter at the Third International Symposium on IgG4-Related Diseases .
Dr. Stone reported receiving IgG4-RD–related research funding from and serving as a consultant to Genentech and Xencor.