At THE EHA CONGRESS
COPENHAGEN (FRONTLINE MEDICAL NEWS) – It’s early days yet, but results look highly promising for the ability of an experimental gene-transfer therapy to improve coagulation parameters in patients with severe hemophilia B.
In a phase I/II dose-escalation study, a single 1-hour infusion of the gene-transfer product, labeled SPK-9001, resulted in factor IX activity levels ranging from 25% to 39% of normal in four men with severe or moderately severe hemophilia B, reported Dr. Katherine A High, president and chief scientific officer of Spark Therapeutics, maker of the product.
“One of the most remarkable features of the data in my mind has been a very consistent performance,” she said at a briefing at the annual congress of the European Hematology Association.
The product consists of a vector containing a novel bio-engineered adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsid with tropism for liver, and a factor IX cassette that carries a strong liver-specific promoter to drive the expression of the factor IX variant, dubbed factor IX Padua.
“The hypothesis of the work was that if we could engineer a vector efficient enough, we would be able to infuse it at a dose low enough that it would drive loads of expression greater than 12% of normal, which in previous work has been shown to be associated with an absence of joint bleeds in natural history studies of people with mild disease, and that infusion at a low dose would eliminate the need for any type of immune suppression with steroids,” Dr. High said.
Other attempts at genetic engineering in patients with hemophilia B have been hampered by the need to use high doses of vector that can induce an immune response, thereby negating the benefit of therapy.
In this ongoing study , conducted in Mississippi, Pennsylvania, and California, males 18 and older with a confirmed diagnosis of hemophilia B (defined as equal to or less than 2 IU/dL or 2% endogenous factor IX) who have received 50 or more days of exposure to factor IX products are enrolled. The patients must have a minimum average of four bleeding events per year requiring episodic treatment of factor IX infusions or prophylactic factor IX infusions, no measurable factor IX inhibitor as assessed by the central laboratory, and no prior history of inhibitors to factor IX protein.
In an oral session at the congress, Dr. Spencer Sullivan, assistant professor of pediatrics and medicine at the University of Mississippi Medical Center in Jackson, presented data on four men whose age ranges from 18 to 47 years.
In the dose-escalation phase of the study, the patients received single infusions of SPK-9001 at an initial starting dose of 5 x 1011 vector genomes of body weight. They were followed for 7-26 weeks after gene transfer for factor IX activity levels, liver enzymes, bleeding episode, and factor usage. As of May 22, 2016, the first four patients showed factor IX activity levels of 32%, 39%, 25%, and 27% of normal, respectively.
All subjects are currently off prophylactic factor IX infusions. During the course of follow-up, one patient infused himself with factor IX once, treating himself 2 days after vector infusion for a suspected ankle bleed.
Asked by a reporter how durable the effect was, Dr. High replied that in dog models of hemophilia B the effect of the gene transfer has been durable.
The best evidence to date of durability in humans, she said, comes from investigators at University College in London (England), who found that if patients can make it past the first 8-10 weeks without developing an immune response to the transfer product, they are likely to do well, and to have a durable effect, she said.
Dr. Anton Hagenbeek, from the Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, who moderated the briefing but was not involved in the study, said that Dr. High was “to be congratulated for these best data ever seen.”
He asked, facetiously, whether she thought that “thousands of patients would buy a ticket to Philadelphia.” The “City of Brotherly Love” is home to one of the trial sites and to Spark headquarters.
The study is sponsored by Spark Therapeutics and Pfizer. Dr. High is president and chief scientific officer of Spark. Dr. Sullivan and Dr. Hagenbeek reported no relevant disclosures.