One-year survival without liver transplant was far more likely when transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) with covered stents were used to treat cirrhosis with recurrent ascites, instead of ongoing large-volume paracenteses with albumin, in a 62-patient randomized trial from France.
“TIPS with covered stents … should therefore be preferred to LVP [large-volume paracenteses] with volume expansion… These findings support TIPS as the first-line intervention,” said investigators led by gastroenterologist Christophe Bureau, MD, of Toulouse (France) University in the January issue of Gastroenterology ( doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2016.09.016 ).
All 62 patients had at least two LVPs prior to the study; 29 were then randomized to covered transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), and 33 to LVP and albumin as needed. All the patients were on a low-salt diet.
Twenty-seven TIPS patients (93%) were alive without a liver transplant at 1 year, versus 17 (52%) in the LVP group (P = .003). TIPS patients had a total of 32 paracenteses in the first year, versus 320 in the LVP group. Six paracentesis patients (18%) had portal hypertension–related bleeding, and six had hernia-related complications; none of the TIPS patients had either. LVP patients spent a mean of 35 days in the hospital, versus 17 days for the TIPS group (P = .04). The probability of remaining free of encephalopathy at 1 year was the same in both groups, at 65%.
It has been shown before that TIPS has the edge on LVP for reducing recurrence of tense ascites. However, early studies used uncovered stents and, due to their almost 80% risk of dysfunction, they did not show a significant benefit for survival. As a result, repeated paracenteses have been recommended as first-line treatment, with TIPS held in reserve for patients who need very frequent LVP.
Polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stents appear to have changed the equation, “owing to a substantial decrease in the rate of shunt dysfunction,” the investigators said.
The French results are a bit better than previous reports of covered TIPS. “This could be related to greater experience with the TIPS procedure;” there were no technical failures. The study also mostly included patients younger than 65 years with Child-Pugh class B disease and no prior encephalopathy – favorable factors that also may have contributed to the results. However, “we believe that the use of covered stents was the main determinant of the observed improvement in outcomes… TIPS with uncovered stent[s] should not be considered effective or recommended any longer for the long-term treatment of” portal hypertension, they said.
Cirrhosis in the trial was due almost entirely to alcohol abuse. About three-quarters of both groups reported abstinence while enrolled. The mean age was 56 years, and the majority of subjects were men.
The work was funded by the French Ministry of Health and supported by Gore, maker of the covered stent used in the study. Dr. Bureau and another author are Gore consultants.