Antibiotic susceptibility in bacteria cultured from transplant recipients at a single hospital differed markedly from that in hospital-wide antibiograms, according to a report published in Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease.

Understanding the differences in antibiotic susceptibility among these highly immunocompromised patients can help guide treatment when they develop infection, and reduce the delay before they begin receiving appropriate antibiotics, said Rossana Rosa, MD, of Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, and her associates.

The investigators examined the antibiotic susceptibility of 1,889 isolates from blood and urine specimens taken from patients who had received solid-organ transplants at a single tertiary-care teaching hospital and then developed bacterial infections during a 2-year period. These patients included both children and adults who had received kidney, pancreas, liver, heart, lung, or intestinal transplants and were treated in numerous, “geographically distributed” units throughout the hospital. Their culture results were compared with those from 10,439 other patients with bacterial infections, which comprised the hospital-wide antibiograms developed every 6 months during the study period.

The Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from the transplant recipients showed markedly less susceptibility to first-line antibiotics than would have been predicted by the hospital-antibiograms. In particular, in the transplant recipients E. coli infections were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, levofloxacin, and ceftriaxone; K. pneumoniae infections were resistant to every antibiotic except amikacin; and P. aeruginosa infections were resistant to levofloxacin, cefepime, and amikacin (Diag Microbiol Infect Dis. 2016 Aug 25. doi: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2016.08.018 ).

“We advocate for the development of antibiograms specific to solid-organ transplant recipients. This may allow intrahospital comparisons and intertransplant-center monitoring of trends in antimicrobial resistance over time,” Dr. Rosa and her associates said.


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